Dr. Moreno Luis Piedrabuena O'Connor Viajes a la Patagonia Viajes al Nahuel Huapi
English pirates such as Francis Drake who fought the "Patagones" in 1577, frequented the southern seas when the territory inland was unknown. A little later, some expeditionists and missionaries ventured from Chile to Neuquen and the Nahuel Huapi region, but inland explorations did not begin until Carmen of Patagones was founded in the 18th century. England showed its interest in the region by sending expeditions such as the one which carried the naturalist Charles Darwin on board.
The first descriptions of the people also came from European travellers: D'Orbigny, Claraz, Musters. During the XIX century "The war against the indian" led to the need for information on the "Desert" and this served as a stimulant to the scientists that accompanied the military campaigns, describing the landscapes, the climate and classifying the regional flora and fauna in minute inventories
1873 he began his journeys to study the Patagonia with the support of the
Argentine Scientific Society and the Government of the Province of Buenos
He first arrived at lake Nahuel Huapi early in 1876 and a year later, accompanied by Carlos Moyano he reconnoitered the course of the river Santa Cruz to its source in Lake Argentino, discovered by Feilberg in 1873.
In the years 1878 - 79 he "Continually insisted on the need to give the discussions on the limits with Chile an exact Geographic base (...) "and I took advantage of the circumstances - tells Moreno in his reminiscents - to hint at the need for a careful exploration of these regions and also of the coasts of Patagonia and Tierra de Fuego. A few days later my hopes were realized. The government of the nation officially communicated to me (...) that I had been chosen to head such a mission."
resources assigned to the exploratary commission were very reduced,
he managed to carry out his mission and Moreno arrived for the second
time at lake Nahuel Huapi:" We were the first white men, that from
the Atlantic, reached the high mountain peaks to reveal their riches and
to indicate, with the compass, the route that the Argentine army was to
follow later "., affirmed the specialist himself in a letter sent to
General Bartolome Mitre in 1883. Perito Francisco P. Moreno.
expedition headed by army Lieutenant Colonel D. Luis Piedrabuena parted
in 1881 aboard the corvette "Cabo de Hornos" to reconnoiter the coasts
of the Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.
The Colonel, born in Carmen of Patagones in 1833, travelled the coasts and seas of the Patagonia, Malvinas islands, Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horns on board a Whaleing vessel. In command of the Corvette "Cabo de Hornos" he explored in 1881 the islands of Los Estados, and canals in Tierra del Fuego, where he made hydrografical, zoological and botanical studies.
end of 1880 the naval expedition, that was to accompany the land
offensive headed by General Villegas, began to prepare. Lieutenant
Eduardo O'Connor received the order to transfer to the Negro river to take
command of the small steamer 'Rio Neuquen' which was to be used in
an attempt to arrive at lake Nahuel Huapi, make a map of the rivers Negro
and Limay, study their repective characteristics and observe the
conditions of navigability of those waterways. The expedition
was made up of the navy Lieutenant Colonel Erasmo Obligado, E. O'Connor
as commander of the boat and responsible for the astronomic observations,
the second Lieutenant Santiago Albarracin responsible for the keeping
of a log-book and general observations and the pilot Edmundo Moises responsible
for making sketches of the rivers. The first Lieutenant
Jorge J. Rhode wrote a report at the end of the expedition detailing the
result of his studies of the strategic passes of the southern Argentine
- Chilean frontier.
Americo Vespucci arrives near Puerto San Julian (50 degrees Lat. South)
in the Patagonia.
1520- The Portuguese Hernando Magallanes (Magellan) finds the Strait and sales to the other ocean which he names Pacific, months before they had anchored in San Julian where they had the first encounters with the
natives who are called 'Patagones'.
1540- Alfonso Camargo, in the bishop of Plasencia's expedition, one of his boats reaches the Beagle canal for the first time.
1577- The English corsair, Francis Drake, terror of the Spanish, fights the patagones in San Julan and passes through the strait then travels north where he sacks the Pacific ports.
1580- Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa,leaves Callao, Peru, makes the first studies of the coasts of the Strait, natural phenomena and encounters with the natives.
1584- Sarmiento de Gamboa, returns to the Strait and founds the colonies of Name of Jesus near Cabo Virgenes and Puerto Hanbre near Punta Santa Ana.
1586- Thomas Cavendish, English corsair, reconnoiters the Strait and finds the remains of the Spanish colonies destroyed by hunger and illness. The expeditions by sea continue from England , Spain, France and Portugal.
1747- Thomas Falkner tells of his experiences in the Patagoniain a book which makes the Spanish decide to take possession before the English do.
1750- Byron and Walles visit successively the coasts of the Patagonia. From mid-century, French and English install themselves clandestinely in the Malvinas (Falkland) islands and patrol the Patagonian coasts.
1780- Antonio Viedma, founds "Floridablanca" in San Julian and travels the Santa Cruz river with the help of the Aoniken.
1782- Villarino reconnoiters the river Negro.
1806- Enrique Libanus Jones produces the best cartography of the Patagonia of the period.
1810- The governments of Chile and Buenos Aires begin to claim possession of the coasts. Chile advancing from the strait of Magellan towards the north and Argentina from Patagones towards the south.
1826/36- The British armada makes three voyages to the Patagonian coast. The English captain Robert Fitz Roy who is accompanied by the naturalist Charles Darwin, makes scientific explorations in the Strait and on the continent.
1859- The Commander Luis Piedrabuena of the Argentine armada installs himself on the Pavon island in the mouth of the Santa Cruz river from where he organizes various expeditions.
1860- D'Orbigny makes detailed ethnographic observations of the northern and southern Tehuelche and Mapuche.
1865- The Welsh colonization begins in the lower valley of the river Chubut. Claraz travels from El Carmen to Valcheta and the Chubut valley sharing daily life with the northern Tehuelche.
1869- Georges Musters, English, crosses the Patagonia from South to North from Punta Arenas, spending the winter on Piedrabuena's estate in Pavon and then travels to Carmen de Patagones in the province of Buenos Aires, accompanied by the Tehuelche tribes of chiefs Casimiro and Orkeke.
1875- Francisco Pascacio Moreno, Argentine, travels in north Patagonia. The Negro river, Limay river, Collon Cura river and Caleufu.
1876- F.P. Moreno, arrives at lake Nahuel on the 22nd of January.
1877- F.P. Moreno makes the first map of the region, arrives at the lakes Argentino, San Martin and Viedma.
1877- Moreno returns to lake Nahuel Huapi and travels round lake Gutierrez.
1877/90- Carlos Moyano explores on repeated trips the coast and inland Patagonia.
1879- General Roca's campaign counts on the presence of scientists such as the professors of the Institute of Sciences of Cordoba, Pablo F. Lorentz, Adolfo Dorking, Gustavo Niederlein and Federico Schulz and the engineer Alfredo Ebelot.
1881- The river Negro waterways detachment, on orders from Captain E. Obligado, arrives at the confluence of the Neuquen and Limay rivers. Lieutenant Rhode made a topographical plan of the Negro and Limay rivers. The Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Oloscoaga, head of the army topograhic office, is commissioned to carry out explorations and topographical work in the territory between the Neuquen and Limay rivers and the Andes mountain range.
1884- Augusto Laserre installs the first lighthouse in the island of the Estados amd establishes sub-prefectures on the island,in Tierra del Fuego , in Rio Gallegos and a colony in Rio Deseado.